Project Nettie: scientists supporting biological sex

Sexual reproduction, the generation of offspring by fusion of genetic material from two different individuals, evolved over 1 billion years ago. It is the reproductive strategy of all higher animals and plants, including the mammalian class to which humans belong. Humans can be differentiated into two categories by their reproductive roles. Females make eggs and gestate live young. Males generate sperm to fertilise the female egg. In accordance with their respective roles, females and males have different reproductive anatomies (“biological sex”). No other reproductive mechanism exists in humans. In contradiction of evolutionary history and millennia of human observations, highly-esteemed scientific periodicals are running articles undermining the observable reality of biological sex.
“Biologists now think there is a larger spectrum than just binary female and male.” Scientific American, Oct 22 2018
“The research and medical community now sees sex as more complex than male and female.” Nature, Oct 30 2018
In response to these claims, Project Nettie was born. What is Project Nettie? Project Nettie is an online and regularly updated record of scientists, medics and those in related disciplines who, by signing their support for the Project Nettie statement (below), assert the material reality of biological sex and reject attempts to reframe it as a malleable social construct. Who is behind Project Nettie? Project Nettie is UK/NZ partnership conceived of by Dr Emma Hilton (@FondOfBeetles) and Ms Jenny Whyte (@tommygun1964). Both are committed to defending a definition of sex anchored in biological reality, and believe attempts to reframe sex as a social construct are harmful to scientific discourse. They work together to collect, collate and verify signatories, and are very grateful to those who have offered support and advice on Project Nettie. How can you be a part of Project Nettie? If you are a scientist, a medic or other healthcare professional, a science educator, or in a relevant field, you can sign the Project Nettie statement. Academic and professional signatories from other disciplines are welcome but will be listed separately. Please click here to access our signatory form. All signatories will be verified by the team. What is the aim of Project Nettie? The aim is to simply reassert the definition of biological sex. We do not extend our claims regarding biological sex beyond the scientific fact of biological sex. We do not feed into any political ideology. Why ‘Project Nettie’? Sex chromosomes were, in 1905, discovered by a female geneticist called Nettie Stevens. We hope, in some small way, to honour her achievements.
The Project Nettie statement: “Biological sex” is a scientific description of the reproductive anatomies that have evolved to fulfil the function of sexual reproduction. Biological sex exists independently of humans and society. In mammals, there are two types of gamete and two classes of reproductive anatomy. The male sex class produces many small motile gametes – sperm – for transfer. The female sex class produces few large immobile gametes – ova – and gestates/delivers live young. In any individual, reproductive anatomy is almost always unambiguously male or female and observed correctly at birth, regardless of ultimate sexual function or dysfunction. Male and female reproductive anatomies differ qualitatively, not quantitatively, and there are no intrinsically-ordered states between male and female reproductive anatomies. Biological sex does not meet the defining criteria for a spectrum. Although rare, some individuals have disorders of sex development (also referred to as intersex conditions). Most of these disorders are male or female specific and do not cause ambiguous biological sex. Some individuals have reproductive anatomies with both male and female features; here, biological sex classification is a complex process with input from medical professionals and parents. Not one of these individuals represents an additional sex class. Reproductive anatomies differentiate and mature under the control of genetic and hormonal signals, and measurements of these factors have strong predictive power, but do not define the sex of an individual. Biological sex is fundamentally defined by male and female reproductive anatomy. Attempts to recast biological sex as a social construct, which then becomes a matter of chosen individual identity, are wholly ideological, scientifically inaccurate and socially irresponsible.
Signatories (alphabetical by last name) Katie Alcock. DPhil Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, UK. Senior lecturer in Psychology, Lancaster University, UK. Claire Allen. BSc Biochemistry and Microbiology, Newcastle University, UK. Luis Alvarez. MD, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Peru. Intensivist, Memorial Healthcare System, US. Former Assistant Professor of Medicine (Pulmonary Diseases and Critical Care), University of Miami, US and Medical College of Wisconsin, US. Mary Andreasen. BSN (Nursing). Registered nurse. Emergency/Trauma Medicine and Clinical Nursing instructor. Kat Arney. MA Natural Sciences and PhD Developmental Genetics, University of Cambridge, UK. Postdoctoral researcher, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, UK. Science writer, author and broadcaster. Presenter of the Genetics Unzipped podcast for the Genetics Society. Katharine Arnold. MBChB, University of Sheffield, UK. Speciality trainee in geriatric and general internal medicine, Wessex Deanery. Member of the Royal College of Physicians. J. Michael Bailey. PhD Psychology, University of Texas (Austin), US. Professor of Psychology, Northwestern University, US. William Barnes. BSc Physics, University of Exeter, UK. Katherine Baxter. MBChB, University of Cambridge, UK. Doctor. Jenny Bell. BSc Ecological Science, University of Edinburgh, UK. Sarah Benjamins. BSc Environmental Biology, University of Manchester, UK; MSc Personalised Nutrition Therapy, CNELM, UK. David Bertoncini. MD University of Illinois Chicago, US. Family medicine practitioner. Richard Bettison. PhD Organic Chemistry, University of Sussex, UK. Annette Breen. BAppSc Agriculture, Massey University, NZ. Diane Brewster. DPhil Artificial Intelligence, University of Sussex, UK. Jay Brown. PhD Virology, University of Warwick, UK. Carly Brooks. PhD Genetics, University of Southampton, UK. Formerly Marine Environment Programme Manager, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) Marine Team, UK. Richard Byng. MBChB, University of Cambridge, UK; MSc Public Health, University of Birmingham, UK; PhD University of London, UK. General practitioner. Member of the Royal College of General Practitioners. Professor of Primary Care Research, University of Plymouth, UK. Brady Caldwell. MSc Astronomy, Uppsala University, Sweden. Head science teacher, Uppsala International School, Sweden. Dave Canavan. BSc Biology with Qualified Teacher Status and MSc Behavioural Ecology, Manchester Metropolitan University, UK. Teacher and science manager. Amy Chestnutt. BSc Biochemistry, University of Bristol, UK. Science teacher. Ryan Clark. MBChB, University of Newcastle, UK; MSc Pediatric Emergency Medicine, University of Edinburgh, UK. Consultant in Emergency and Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Royal Victoria Infirmary, UK. Fellow of the Royal College of Emergency Medicine. Jane Cook. BSc Biological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Australia. PhD Philosophy and Social Sciences, University of Waikato, NZ. Philosophical counselor. Fellow of the American Philosophical Practitioners Association. Research associate, University of Waikato, NZ. David Crowe. BSc Biology and Mathematics, Lakehead University, Canada. David Curtis. MBChB and PhD Genetics, University of Cambridge, UK. Psychiatrist, Fellow of the Royal College of Psychiatrists. Professor of Genetics at University College London, UK. Saurja DasGupta. PhD Chemistry, University of Chicago, US. Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, US. Dilys Davies. PhD Psychology, University of London; DipClinPsych, Tavistock Clinic DCT, UK. Consultant Clinical Psychologist. Marco Del Giudice. PhD Cognitive Science, University of Turin, Italy. Professor of Psychology, University of New Mexico, US. Cathy Devine. BSc Zoology, University College London, UK; MSc Nutrition, King’s College London, UK. Angela Dixon. MBChB, St George’s, London, UK. Doctor, GP, woman’s health specialist. Melanie Douglass, PhD Psychology, Glasgow Caledonian University, UK. Michael Dubar. BSc Mechanical Engineering, University of Edinburgh, UK; PGCE (Physics) University of Cambridge, UK. Former researcher at the Energy Research Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, UK. Amaryllis Elphick. BSc Applied Biology, University of East London, UK; PGCE Biology, Goldsmiths College University of London, UK; MA Disability Studies, University of Sheffield, UK. Charlotte Evans. BSci Human Biology and MRes Bioscience, University of East London, UK. Ellen Faed. PhD Pharmacology, Otago University, NZ. Edward Fernandes. PhD Social Psychology and Sexology, Union Institute and University, US. Associate Professor of Psychology, Barton College, US. Joanne Finkel. MA Archaeology, University of Glasgow, UK. Lina María Gallo Espinosa. BSc Physics, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Colombia. Liam Garvey. BA Botany and PhD Plant Ecophysiology, University of Dublin, Ireland. Biology teacher and Science Coordinator, International School of Stuttgart, Germany. Michelle Gosse. BA Psychology and MA Psychology, Massey University, NZ. PhD candidate, Massey University, NZ. James Greville. BSc Physiology and Psychology and PhD Psychology, Cardiff University, UK. Lecturer in Psychology, University of South Wales, UK. Giedre Grigelioniene. MD, PhD. Consultant in Clinical Genetics and Pediatrics, Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden. Carsten Grötzinger. PhD Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Humboldt University, Germany. Research group leader, Charité University Medicine, Berlin, Germany. Antonia Hamilton. BSc Psychology, University of Oxford, UK; PhD Neuroscience, University College London, UK. Professor of Neuroscience, Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, UK. Elizabeth Hamilton. PhD candidate in Experimental and Cognitive Psychology, Universite Paris 8, France. Adjunct Professor. Former ATER. Lewis Halsey. BSc Behavioural Science and MSc Environmental Science, University of Nottingham, UK; PhD Zoology, University of Birmingham, UK. Professor of Environmental Physiology, Department of Life Sciences, University of Roehampton, UK. Steve Harcourt. MS Chemistry, Rensselaer Institute, US. BASF chemist. Patricia Hardman. PhD Biochemistry, University of Manchester, UK. Former postdoctoral research fellow, teacher. Sanne Hatt. BSc Audiology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. Clinical audiologist. Thomas Hawkins. PhD Biology, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. Debbie Hayton. BSc Astronomy and Astrophysics and PhD Atomic Physics, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; PGCE University of Birmingham, UK. Physics teacher. Michael Heller. MD State University of New York (Upstate) Medical University, US. Emergency Medicine, Mount Sinai Beth Israel and The Mount Sinai Hospital, US. Professor. Alicia Hendley. PhD Clinical Psychology, University of Windsor, Canada. Former psychologist, University of Waterloo, Canada. Amanda Heslegrave. PhD Neuroscience, University College London, UK. Senior research fellow, University College London, UK. Paul Hewson. BSc Biological Sciences and PhD Statistics. Data scientist. Heather E. Heying. PhD Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, US. Professor, visiting Fellow at Princeton University, US, educator, author (evolution of sex). Emma Hilton. PhD Developmental Biology, University of Warwick, UK. Honorary research fellow in Developmental Biology, University of Manchester, UK. Scott Howell. PhD Health Science, Global Health Researcher, Trident University, US. Epidemiologist and exercise physiologist, faculty member, Trident University, US. Author. Kristopher Hunt. MD, St. Vincent Emergency Physicians, Indianapolis, US. TUE Committee Chair, USA Powerlifting. Brenda Jones. BHS (Nursing), Edith Cowan University, Australia and Diploma of Addiction Studies, University of Adelaide, Australia. Sharon Joyce. BSocSci and MEnvMan, University of Tasmania, Australia. Environmental social scientist. Damla Karagöl. BSc Molecular Biology and Genetics, Uludağ University, Turkey. Lesley Kay. MBChB, MSc. Consultant, Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians. Morag Kerr. BVMS, BSc Biochemistry, PhD, University of Glasgow, UK. Member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. Former lecturer in Veterinary Clinical Pathology, Royal Veterinary College, UK and Animal Sciences, Scotland’s Rural College, UK. Lynette Keys. BA Archeology, University College London, UK. Consultant archeometallurgist. Jane Kloda. PhD Genetics, University of Cambridge, UK. UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, UK. Martin Law. BDS, University of Manchester, UK. Dentist. Sandra Law. BSc Plant Biology and PhD Educational Technology, University of Calgary, Canada. Former researcher in plant reproductive biology. Dierdre Little. MBChB. Medical officer, woman’s health specialist, and registrar supervisor, Bellingen District Hospital, Australia. Sue Lani Madsen. BArch Architecture, Washington State University, US. Emergency Medical Technician and Captain, Lincoln County Fire District 4. Architect. William J. Malone. BA Human Biology, Stanford University, US; MD, NYU School of Medicine, US. Endocrinologist. H Susana Marinho. PhD Biochemistry, University of Lisbon, Portugal. Assistant Professor of Biochemistry, University of Lisbon, Portugal. Sarah Marsden. MBChB, University of Leeds, UK. Anaesthetist. Caoimhe McAnena. BSc Applied Psychology, University of Ulster, UK; DClinPsych University College London, UK. Senior Lecturer in Psychology, Goldsmiths University of London, UK. Clinical Psychologist. Stephen McCarthy. MD, Dalhousie University, Canada. Family medicine, Diplomat of the College of Family Physicians. Associate Professor of Family Medicine, Dalhousie University, Canada. Sarah McGurk. BVMS, University of Edinburgh, UK. Veterinary surgeon. Member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. Indrek Meyer. MD, University of Toledo, US. Family medicine, intensivist. Brian Miller. BEd Cardiff Metropolitan University, UK; MA University of Birmingham. Sport Psychologist, British Olympic Association and Australian Institute of Sport. Geoffrey Miller. PhD Cognitive Psychology, Stanford University, US. Professor of Psychology at University of New Mexico, US. Fellow of the Association for Psychological Science. Fiona Mitchell. BSc Physiotherapy, University of East London, UK. Musculoskeletal physiotherapist, Worcestershire Health and Care NHS Trust, UK. Janet Montgomery. BSc Archaeological Science and PhD Archaeological Science, University of Bradford, UK. Professor of Bioarchaeology, Durham University, UK. Lewis Moonie. MBChB, University of St Andrews, UK. Psychiatrist, Member of the Royal College of Psychiatrists. Community medicine specialist. Member of the House of Lords. Rebekah Murphy. MB BS, St George’s, London, UK. Melanie Newbould. BSc Anatomy and MB BS, University of London, UK; PhD Bioethics and Medical Jurisprudence, University Of Manchester, UK. Pediatric pathologist. Fellow of the Royal College of Pathologists. Andrew Nolan. BSc Chemistry and PGCE, University of York, UK. Teacher. Layne Norton. BSc Biochemistry, Eckerd College, US; PhD Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois, US. Research Fellow, University of Illinois, US. Powerlifter and body coach. Alan O’Callaghan. BSc Biopharmaceutical chemistry, National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland; MSc Bioinformatics, Queen’s University Belfast, UK. PhD candidate in Biomedical Data Science, University of Edinburgh, UK. Tanya Ogle. BScN Nursing, University of Western Ontario, Canada. Registered nurse. Charlotte Oliver. BSc Biomedical Science, University of Sunderland, UK. Candy Outten. BA Sports and Exercise Science, University of Surrey, UK; BA Sociology and Anthropology, Curtin University, Australia. Pamela Owens. BSc Biology, Humboldt State, US and MSW, California State Long Beach, US. Community trainer for child sexual abuse and other childhood issues. Ellen Pasternack. BA Biological Sciences and PhD candidate in Zoology, University of Oxford, UK. Maxine E. Petersen-Lee. BA Psychology, York University, Canada; MA Criminology and Psychology, University of Toronto, Canada. Clinician, Gender Identity Clinic, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Canada (retired). Member of the College of Psychologists of Ontario (retired). Laetitia Pichevin-Harrison. PhD Climate and Marine Sciences, School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, UK. Barbara Price. BA Psychology, Washington University, US; ASN Nursing, Washtenaw Community College, US. Department of Psychiatry, UCSF Fresno, US. Lisa Proctor. BSc Diagnostic Radiography, Birmingham City University, UK; BSc Chemistry, Leicester University, UK. Marie Robson. BSc Engineering Geology and MSc Environmental Science, University of Sunderland, UK. Public Health England. Hannah Ryan. MBChB and MSc Medical Microbiology, University of Liverpool, UK. Registrar, clinical pharmacology and therapeutics, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, UK. Member of the Royal College of Physicians. Kathryn Scarbrough. PhD Physiology, University of Maryland Baltimore, US. Scientist, educator. Jim Schofield. BVSc, Massey University, NZ; DVM and GradDipMedPhys, University of Sydney, Australia. Richard Seager. BSc Information Science and PGDipSci Climate Science, Otago University, NZ. 2019 Dunedin Mayoral candidate. C Shepherd. MSc Pharmacological Biochemistry. Science educator. Former Director of Learning, BACA, UK. Sarah Smith. MBChB University of Glasgow. Former NHS GP and clinical research physician. Freelance medical director. Jonathan Smithson. BMedSci, University of Newcastle, Australia; BMedLLB, University of Sydney, Australia. Psychiatrist, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, Australia. Fellow of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists. Lecturer in Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Australia. Samuel Snow. BS Earth and Atmospheric Science and PhD Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, US. Linda Spenst-Blade. BSc Zoology, University of Maryland, US; PhD Kinesiology, Simon Fraser University, Canada. Chartered professional sports coach. Sports performance consultant. President of Athletics Alberta. Steve Stewart-Williams. PhD Psychology and Philosophy, Massey University, NZ. Associate Professor of Psychology, University of Nottingham Malaysia, MY. Sian Sullivan. PhD Anthropology, University College London, UK. Professor of Environment and Culture, Bath Spa University, UK. Graham Sutton. MA Natural Sciences (Physics), University of CambridgeUK; PhD Hearing Science, Keele University, UK. Consultant audiologist (retired). Formerly at Royal Berkshire Hospital, University of Manchester, Royal Free Hospital and Public Health England. Pamela Thompson. DPhil Molecular Genetics, University of Oxford, UK. Former research fellow in Medical Genetics, University of Manchester, UK. Paul Thompson. PhD Psychometrics. Medical statistician, Accredited by American Statistical Association. Heidi Tillin. PhD Marine Ecology, University of Liverpool, UK. Consultant marine ecologist. Simon Tomlinson. BSc Psychology, Birkbeck, University of London, UK; MSc and PhD, Neuropsychology Bangor University, UK. Georgina Toye. PhD Biomedical Immunology, University of Bath, UK. MSc candidate in Bioinformatics, Birkbeck College London, UK. Kathryn Turner. BSc Zoology Aberdeen University, UK; MS Ecology, Fordham University, US; PhD Ecology, University of Sheffield, UK. Pierre Vachon. PhD Cell Biology, University of Sherbrooke, Canada. Associate Professor and research scientist, University of Sherbrooke, Canada (retired). Sarah Verity. BSc Psychology, Open University, UK; DClinPsy Newcastle University, UK; PG Dip Paediatric Neuropsychology, University College London, UK. Clinical psychologist, Newcastle Upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, UK. Associate clinical lecturer, Newcastle University, UK. Jennifer Wagner. MD, Indiana University, US. Orthopedic surgeon. Selina Wallis. BSc Marine Biology and PGCE Science, University of North Wales Bangor, UK; MSc Public Health Analysis, Liverpool John Moores University, UK. Research Impact Officer, Psychology Health and Society, University of Liverpool, UK. Richard Wassersug. PhD Evolutionary Biology, University of Chicago, US. Professor of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Dalhousie University, Canada. Honorary Professor of Cellular and Physiological Sciences, University of British Columbia, Canada. Adjunct Professor in the Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health and Society, La Trobe University Melbourne, Australia. Adrian Webb. MA Applied Anthropology, California State University (Long Beach), US. Archeologist. Emily Wheater. BSc Biochemisty, Imperial College London, UK; MRes Neuroscience, University College London, UK. PhD candidate in Translational Neuroscience, University of Edinburgh, UK. Rachel Whiteley. PhD Quantitative and Molecular Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden. Teacher. Daphna Whitmore. BA Anthropology, University of Auckland, NZ and MN (Nursing), Massey University, NZ. Registered nurse in reproductive health. Jenny Whyte. BSc Zoology and Postgraduate Diploma in Ecological Restoration, School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, NZ. Linda Wiener. PhD Entomology, University of Wisconsin Madison, US. Teacher. Nicola Williams. PhD Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Fair Play For Women. Alison Wren. BSc Microbiology and MSc Health Education. Teacher. Colin Wright. PhD Evolutionary Biology and Ecology. Research fellow in Biology, Penn State, US. Jacqueline Xavier. BSc Health Science and BSc candidate in Medical Laboratory Science, Indiana University, US. Supporting signatories (alphabetical by last name) John Armstrong. DPhil Mathematics, University of Oxford, UK. Senior lecturer in Mathematics, King’s College London, UK. Alessandra Asteriti. PhD International Law, University of Glasgow, UK. Junior professor, researcher, educator. Jane Ayers. LLB Law, Leicester University, UK; MA/CQSW Applied Social Studies, Sheffield University, UK. Teacher. Valerie Bernham. BSc Audiology and Speech Science, University of Michigan, US. Individual provider. Janice Briggs. PhD Economic Sociology, City University of New York, US. Michael Biggs. PhD Sociology, Harvard, US. Associate Professor of Sociology, University of Oxford, UK. Fellow of St Cross College. Callie Burt. PhD Sociology, University of Georgia, US. Associate Professor of Criminolgy, Georgia State University, US. Alex Byrne. PhD Philosophy, Princeton University, US. Professor of Philosophy, Department of Linguistics and Philosophy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, US. Lynn Fauth. PhD English, University of Indiana, US. Former Professor of English at Oxnard College, US and Bethel University, US. Malcolm Featherstone. BA Economics, University of Warwick, UK; MSc Public Sector Economics, University of York, UK; Graduate Diploma in Law, University of Law, UK. Barrister (non-practising). Philip Ferguson. PhD History, University of Canterbury, NZ. Brenda Fine. BMath Mathematics, University of British Columbia, Canada. Statistics educator, British Columbia Institute of Technology, Canada. Frank Furedi, PhD Sociology, University of Kent, UK. Emeritus Professor of Sociology at University of Kent, UK, author. Molly Gardner. PhD Philosophy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, US. Assistant Professor of Philosophy, Bowling Green State University, US. Vanessa Gash. DPhil Sociology, University of Oxford, UK. Senior lecturer in Sociology, City University of London, UK. Jayne Gosnall. BA 3D Design, Middlesex University, UK. Educator. Claire Graham. BA Primary Education and Graduate Diploma in Law, Sheffield Hallam University, UK. Educator and advocate for the intersex community. Marcus Grant. BSc Ecology, University of Exeter, UK; MA Landscape Architecture, Birmingham City University, UK. Fellow of the Faculty of Public Health. Editor-in-chief Cities And Health. Jeanna Hoch. BA Political Science, University of Colorado, US. Entrepreneur. Keith Holmwood. BA English and French, Keele University, UK. Teacher. Lucy Hunter Blackburn. BA Modern History, University of Oxford, UK; MA Political Philosophy, University of York, UK; MSc Educational Research, University of Edinburgh, UK. PhD candidate in Education, University of Edinburgh, UK. Sue Ivanyi. BAgrSci Agriculture, La Trobe University, Australia; MCouns Counselling, University of New England, Australia. Public health counsellor. Monika Jerič. PhD Comparative Literature Studies, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. Jane Clare Jones. PhD Philosophy, State University of New York, US. Madeleine Jowett. PhD Women’s Studies, Lancaster University, UK. Former lecturer at Lancaster University, the Open University and the University of Aberdeen. Lyne Jubinville. BSc Management, HEC Montreal, Canada. Sharon Lane. BEng Mechanical Design Engineering, University of Teesside, UK; MBA Durham University, UK. Engineer. Holly Lawford-Smith. PhD Philosophy, Australian National University, Australia. Senior Lecturer in Political Philosophy, School of Historical and Philosophical Studies, University of Melbourne, Australia. Roanne Leeman. BSW and MSW, Carleton University, Canada. Registered social worker with Ontario College of Social Workers, Canada. Lisa Mackenzie. BA Modern Chinese, University of Durham, UK. MSc Policy Studies, University of Edinburgh, UK. Michelle Mackness. MC Counselling, City University of Seattle (Vancouver), Seattle. Mental Health Therapist, Edmonton North Primary Care Network, Canada. Jessica Masterson. BA Philosophy and English, Mary Immaculate College, Ireland; MA, Philosophy, National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland. PhD candidate in Philosophy, University of Birmingham, UK. Kirsty McKenzie. MA Applied Linguistics, King’s College London, UK. Vicky Miller. MA Education. Teacher, mathematics specialist. Richard Moot. PhD Computational Linguistics, Utrecht University, Netherlands. Libby Morrison. BA Politics and MA Human Geography, Newcastle University, UK. PhD candidate in Human Geography, Newcastle University, UK. Simon Mulholland. Engineer, inventor. Pony Access Scotland. Kath Murray. PhD Criminology, University of Edinburgh, UK. Research Fellow in Criminology, University of Edinburgh School of Law, UK. Ani O’Brien. BA History and English, University of Auckland, NZ. Activist and educator. Spokeswoman Speak Up For Women New Zealand. Norienne Saign. PhD Literature, University of California San Diego, US. James Scaminaci III. PhD Sociology, Stanford, US. Former intelligence analyst, US Army. Nick Scullin. MA Information Studies, Victoria University of Wellington, NZ. Biological Sciences Subject Librarian, University of Canterbury, NZ. Lesley Semmens. PhD Mathematics, Computing and Software Engineering, Leeds Beckett University, UK. Former senior lecturer, Leeds Beckett University, UK. Mike Shone. BA Sociology and Philosophy. Lecturer in Sociology, Stafford College of Further Education, UK. John Simpson. BSc Computer Science, Open University, UK. Maria Sobolewska. DPhil Sociology, University of Oxford, UK. Professor of Political Science, University of Manchester, UK. Svetlana Speight. DPhil Sociology, University of Oxford, UK. Research Director, Policy Research Centre, National Centre for Social Research, UK. Jeremy Stangroom. PhD Sociology, London School of Economics, UK. Author. Kathleen Stock. PhD Philosophy, University of Leeds, UK. Professor of Philosophy, University of Sussex, UK. Alice Sullivan. DPhil Sociology, University of Oxford, UK. Professor of Sociology, University College London, UK. Lani Rowe. PhD Political Science, Yale, US. Jon K. Uhler. Licensed professional counselor. SurvivorSupport.net. Jane Waring. BA English Literature and PGCE, University of Reading, UK. Lecturer in Education, University of Reading, UK. Mark Warschauer. PhD Second Language Acquisition, University of Hawaii, US. Professor of Education, University of California, Irvine, US. Tania Ziegler. BSc Mathematics, PGCE and MA Ed, University of Southampton, UK. Mathematics teacher.